DTM Europe: Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) (January – March 2021) – Quarterly regional report, Q1 2021 – World
MIXED MIGRATION FLOWS TO EUROPE
In the first quarter of 2021, a total of 17,391 migrants and refugees were registered arriving via the three Mediterranean routes and the Atlantic route from West Africa to Europe, or 7% less than the 18,641 arrivals recorded during the same period in 2020, and 3% less than the 17,889 recorded in the first quarter of 2019. Arrivals in the first quarter of 2021 are down 53% from the previous period (37,454 in the fourth quarter of 2020). This significant drop coincides somewhat with a deterioration in weather conditions during the first months of the year.
About (43%) of all those registered in the first quarter of 2021 arrived in Europe by route from the central Mediterranean to Italy and Malta (7,484). 37% reached Spain via the Western Mediterranean and West African routes (6,518) and the remaining 19% took the Eastern Mediterranean route to Greece, Cyprus and Bulgaria.
Compared to the same quarter of 2020, the share of arrivals via the Central Mediterranean route (CMR) and the Western Mediterranean route (WMR) and West Africa-Atlantic (WAAR) to Spain has increased, while the share of arrivals via the Eastern Mediterranean route (EMR) has decreased significantly. By comparison, the share of arrivals by route from the Eastern Mediterranean represented 53% of all arrivals to Europe in the first quarter of 2020.
According to the data available from the national authorities to date and without taking into account arrivals in Spain, Tunisia and Côte d’Ivoire are the most frequently declared countries of origin among all the arrivals recorded in Europe (14 and 13% respectively ), followed by many other Saharan Africa, North Africa and Asia.
Arrivals recorded on the Central Mediterranean Route (CMR) in the first quarter of 2021 by sea were 7,484, 29% lower than the 10,547 arrivals in the fourth quarter of 2020, but twice the number of those recorded in the first quarter 2020 (3,929), and nearly 10 times more arrivals recorded in Q1 2019 (761). The main nationalities on arrival were Tunisia, Côte d’Ivoire, Bangladesh. During the first quarter of 2021, 5,904 migrants returned to Libya 2 and at least 237 perished crossing the central Mediterranean.
Arrivals in Spain – which was the first country for arrivals recorded by land and sea in 2020 (41,861) – were 6,518 in the first quarter of 2021, 20% more than the arrivals recorded in the first quarter of 2020 (5 473). Arrivals in the first quarter of 2021 are nevertheless less than a third of those of the fourth quarter of 2020 (22,816). More than half (53%) of arrivals recorded in Spain so far in 2021 have been recorded by 1 Data on nationalities on arrival are not available for Spain, Bulgaria and Cyprus and are not not final for Greece. the West African Atlantic Route (WAAR) to the Canary Islands, and the remainder went through the Western Mediterranean Route (WMR) to mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands. In the first quarter of 2021, 3,458 migrants and refugees passed through the WAAR, more than double the number of arrivals in the Canaries during the same reference period in 2020 (1,477). During the first trimester, at least 115 people died or disappeared at sea while on their way to Spain (33 of whom died in the Atlantic Ocean).
Arrivals by route from the Eastern Mediterranean (EMR) continue to be the lowest in the region in the first quarter of 2021, when 3,389 migrants and refugees were registered upon arrival in Greece, Cyprus and Bulgaria. This is three times less than the 10,722 arrivals recorded in the same period of 2020 and 17% less than the arrivals in the fourth quarter of 2020 (4,091). Somalia, Afghanistan and the Democratic Republic of Congo are the top three 2 Source: IOM Libya. 3 Source: IOM Missing Migrant Project, missingmigrants.iom.int nationalities reported in DME. Along the same route, the Turkish Coast Guard (TCG) reported apprehending 2,365 people in the first quarter of the year as they attempted to cross the sea irregularly between Turkey and Greece. TCG interceptions were 37% lower than in the fourth quarter of 2020 (3,775).
Records of migrants intercepted by national authorities in the Western Balkans, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Croatia, Slovenia, Romania and Kosovo * were 21,038 in the first quarter of 2020 , i.e. a decrease of 37% compared to the previous quarter (33,514 in Q4 2020) and 11% less than the transits and apprehensions recorded in the first quarter of 2020 (23,718). Afghanistan, Pakistan and Bangladesh were the most frequently reported countries of origin in the Western Balkans between January and March 2021.